Monday, January 11, 2021

Middle/H.S. Science

Middle School School Science

 Sixth grade science

A. Science practices and tools

1 Identify steps of the scientific method

2 Identify laboratory tools


B. Designing experiments

1 Identify control and experimental groups

2 Identify independent and dependent variables

3 Identify the experimental question

4 Identify questions that can be investigated with a set of materials

5 Understand an experimental protocol about plant growth

6 Understand an experimental protocol about diffusion

7 Understand an experimental protocol about evaporation


C. Engineering practices

1 Identify parts of the engineering-design process

2 Evaluate tests of engineering-design solutions

3 Use data from tests to compare engineering-design solutions

4 Explore the engineering-design process: going to the Moon!


D. Matter and mass

1 Calculate density

2 Understand conservation of matter using graphs


E. Atoms and molecules

1 What are atoms and chemical elements?

2 How are substances represented by chemical formulas and models?

3 Match chemical formulas to ball-and-stick models

4 Complete chemical formulas for ball-and-stick models

5 Describe the atomic composition of molecules

6 Classify elementary substances and compounds using chemical formulas

7 Identify elementary substances and compounds using chemical formulas

8 Sort elementary substances and compounds using chemical formulas

9 Classify elementary substances and compounds using models

10 Identify elementary substances and compounds using models

11 Sort elementary substances and compounds using models


F. Chemical reactions

1 Identify reactants and products

2 Count atoms and molecules in chemical reactions

3 Calculate amounts of reactants or products in chemical reactions

4 Describe energy changes in chemical reactions

5 Compare physical and chemical changes

6 Explore chemical structure and properties: soapmaking

7 Explore chemical structure and properties: food flavors


G. Velocity, acceleration, and forces

1 Calculate speed from time and distance

2 Calculate distance from speed and time

3 Calculate time from speed and distance

4 Calculate speed, distance, and time I

5 Calculate speed, distance, and time II

6 Identify whether objects are accelerating

7 How does mass affect force and acceleration?

8 Predict forces using Newton's third law

9 Balanced and unbalanced forces


H. Kinetic and potential energy

1 Identify changes in gravitational potential energy

2 Use tables and graphs to identify patterns about kinetic energy

3 Explore energy transformations: roller coaster ride

4 Explore energy transformations: bike ride 


I. Thermal energy

1 Predict heat flow and temperature changes

2 How are temperature and mass related to thermal energy?

3 Compare thermal energy transfers


J. Particle motion and energy

1 How does particle motion affect temperature?

2 Particle motion and changes of state

3 How does particle motion affect gas pressure?

4 Identify how particle motion affects temperature and pressure


K. Waves

1 Compare amplitudes, wavelengths, and frequencies of waves

2 Compare energy of waves

L. Solutions

1 Compare concentrations of solutions

2 Diffusion across membranes


M. Classification and scientific names

1 Identify common and scientific names

2 Origins of scientific names

3 Use scientific names to classify organisms


N. Biochemistry

1 Structure and function: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids

2 Understanding the chemistry of cellular respiration


O. Cells

1 Understanding cells

2 Identify functions of plant cell parts

3 Identify functions of animal cell parts

4 Plant cell diagrams: label parts

5 Animal cell diagrams: label parts

6 Compare cells and cell parts


P. Anatomy and physiology

1 Body systems: circulation and respiration

2 Body systems: digestion

3 Body systems: removing waste

4 Body systems: perception and motion

5 Organization in the human body: the heart and the circulatory system

6 Science literacy: how does the nervous system produce phantom pain?


Q. Genes to traits

1 Inherited and acquired traits: use evidence to support a statement

2 Genetics vocabulary: genotype and phenotype

3 Genetics vocabulary: dominant and recessive

4 Genetic variation in sexual reproduction

5 Complete and interpret Punnett squares

6 Use Punnett squares to calculate ratios of offspring types

7 Genes, proteins, and traits: understanding the genetic code

8 Describe the effects of gene mutations on organisms

9 How do genes and the environment affect plant growth?


R. Adaptations and natural selection

1 How can animal behaviors affect reproductive success? Identify evidence to support a claim

2 Introduction to natural selection

3 Calculate the percentages of traits in a population

4 Calculate the averages of traits in a population

5 Construct explanations of natural selection


S. Fossils

1 Compare fossils to modern organisms

2 Compare ages of fossils in a rock sequence 


T. Plant reproduction

1 Flowering plant and conifer life cycles

2 Moss and fern life cycles


U. Photosynthesis

1 How do plants use and change energy?

2 Identify the photosynthetic organism


V. Ecosystems

1 Describe populations, communities, and ecosystems

2 Identify ecosystems

3 Describe ecosystems


W. Ecological interactions

1 How does matter move in food chains?

2 Interpret food webs I

3 Interpret food webs II

4 Use food chains to predict changes in populations

5 Classify symbiotic relationships

6 Investigate primary succession on a volcanic island


X. Conservation

1 Coral reef biodiversity and human uses: explore a problem

2 Coral reef biodiversity and human uses: evaluate solutions


Y. Natural resources and human impacts

1 Evaluate claims about natural resource use: groundwater

2 Evaluate claims about natural resource use: fossil fuels


Z. Rocks and minerals

1 Identify rocks and minerals

2 Classify rocks as igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic

3 Label parts of rock cycle diagrams

4 Select parts of rock cycle diagrams


AA. Plate tectonics

1 Label Earth layers

2 Label Earth features at tectonic plate boundaries

3 Describe tectonic plate boundaries around the world


BB. Topographic maps

1 Select parts of a topographic map


CC. Water cycle

1 Label parts of water cycle diagrams

2 Select parts of water cycle diagrams


DD. Weather and climate

1 Weather and climate around the world

2 Weather or climate? Cite text

3 Use data to describe climates

4 Explore air masses

5 Identify and compare air masses

6 How do air masses form?


EE. Climate change

1 The greenhouse effect


FF. Natural hazards

1 Analyze natural hazard maps


GG. Astronomy

1 Analyze models of the Earth-Sun-Moon system

2 Identify phases of the Moon

3 What causes the seasons on Earth?

4 Analyze data to compare properties of planets


HH. Units and measurement

1 Choose customary units of distance, mass, and volume

2 Choose metric units of distance, mass, and volume

3 Estimate temperatures

4 Abbreviate length, speed, and acceleration units

5 Abbreviate temperature, mass, and volume units

6 Abbreviate force, energy, and electricity units


Seventh grade science

A. Science practices and tools

1 Identify steps of the scientific method

2 Identify laboratory tools

B. Designing experiments

1 Identify control and experimental groups

2 Identify independent and dependent variables

3 Identify the experimental question

4 Identify questions that can be investigated with a set of materials

5 Understand an experimental protocol about plant growth

6 Understand an experimental protocol about diffusion

7 Understand an experimental protocol about evaporation


C. Engineering practices

1 Identify parts of the engineering-design process

2 Evaluate tests of engineering-design solutions

3 Use data from tests to compare engineering-design solutions

4 Explore the engineering-design process: going to the Moon!


D. Density

1 Calculate density, mass, and volume


E. Atoms and molecules

1 What are atoms and chemical elements?

2 How are substances represented by chemical formulas and models?

3 Identify chemical formulas for ball-and-stick models

4 Describe the atomic composition of molecules

5 Classify elementary substances and compounds using chemical formulas

6 Classify elementary substances and compounds using models

F. Chemical reactions

1 Identify reactants and products

2 Count atoms and molecules in chemical reactions

3 Calculate amounts of reactants or products in chemical reactions

4 Describe energy changes in chemical reactions

5 Compare physical and chemical changes

6 Explore chemical structure and properties: soapmaking

7 Explore chemical structure and properties: food flavors


G. Velocity, acceleration, and forces

1 Calculate velocity from time and distance

2 Calculate distance from velocity and time

3 Calculate time from velocity and distance

4 Calculate velocity, distance, and time I

5 Calculate velocity, distance, and time II

6 Identify whether objects are accelerating

7 How does mass affect force and acceleration?

8 Predict forces using Newton's third law

9 Balanced and unbalanced forces


H. Kinetic and potential energy

1 Identify changes in gravitational potential energy

2 Use tables and graphs to identify patterns about kinetic energy

3 Explore energy transformations: roller coaster ride

4 Explore energy transformations: bike ride


I. Thermal energy

1 Predict heat flow and temperature changes

2 Compare thermal energy transfers 


J. Particle motion and energy

1 How does particle motion affect temperature?

2 Particle motion and changes of state

3 How does particle motion affect gas pressure?

4 Identify how particle motion affects temperature and pressure


K. Waves

1 Compare amplitudes, wavelengths, and frequencies of waves

2 Compare energy of waves


L. Solutions

1 Compare concentrations of solutions

2 Diffusion across membranes


M. Classification and scientific names

1 Identify common and scientific names

2 Origins of scientific names

3 Use scientific names to classify organisms


N. Biochemistry

1 Structure and function: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids

2 Understanding the chemistry of cellular respiration


O. Cells

1 Understanding cells

2 Identify functions of plant cell parts

3 Identify functions of animal cell parts

4 Plant cell diagrams: label parts

5 Animal cell diagrams: label parts

6 Compare cells and cell parts


P. Anatomy and physiology

1 Organization in the human body: the heart and the circulatory system

2 Science literacy: how does the nervous system produce phantom pain?


Q. Genes to traits

1 Inherited and acquired traits: use evidence to support a statement

2 Genetics vocabulary: genotype and phenotype

3 Genetics vocabulary: dominant and recessive

4 Genetic variation in sexual reproduction

5 Complete and interpret Punnett squares

6 Use Punnett squares to calculate ratios of offspring types

7 Use Punnett squares to calculate probabilities of offspring types

8 Genes, proteins, and traits: understanding the genetic code

9 Describe the effects of gene mutations on organisms

10 How do genes and the environment affect plant growth?


R. Adaptations and natural selection

1 How can animal behaviors affect reproductive success? Identify evidence to support a claim

2 Introduction to natural selection

3 Calculate the percentages of traits in a population

4 Calculate the averages of traits in a population

5 Construct explanations of natural selection


S. Fossils

1 Compare fossils to modern organisms

2 Compare ages of fossils in a rock sequence


T. Plant reproduction

1 Angiosperm and conifer life cycles

2 Moss and fern life cycles 


U. Photosynthesis

1 How do plants use and change energy?

2 Identify the photosynthetic organism


V. Ecosystems

1 Describe populations, communities, and ecosystems

2 Identify ecosystems

3 Describe ecosystems


W. Ecological interactions

1 How does matter move in food chains?

2 Interpret food webs I

3 Interpret food webs II

4 Use food chains to predict changes in populations

5 Classify symbiotic relationships

6 Investigate primary succession on a volcanic island


X. Conservation

1 Coral reef biodiversity and human uses: explore a problem

2 Coral reef biodiversity and human uses: evaluate solutions


Y. Natural resources and human impacts

1 Evaluate claims about natural resource use: groundwater

2 Evaluate claims about natural resource use: fossil fuels


Z. Rocks and minerals

1 Identify rocks and minerals

2 Classify rocks as igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic

3 Label parts of rock cycle diagrams

4 Select parts of rock cycle diagrams


AA. Plate tectonics

1 Label Earth layers

2 Label Earth features at tectonic plate boundaries

3 Describe tectonic plate boundaries around the world


BB. Topographic maps

1 Select parts of a topographic map


CC. Water cycle

1 Label parts of water cycle diagrams

2 Select parts of water cycle diagrams


DD. Weather and climate

1 Use data to describe climates

2 Explore air masses

3 Identify and compare air masses

4 How do air masses form?


EE. Climate change

1 The greenhouse effect


FF. Natural hazards

1 Analyze natural hazard maps


GG. Astronomy

1 Analyze models of the Earth-Sun-Moon system

2 Identify phases of the Moon

3 What causes the seasons on Earth?

4 Analyze data to compare properties of planets


HH. Units and measurement

1 Choose customary units of distance, mass, and volume

2 Choose metric units of distance, mass, and volume

3 Estimate temperatures

4 Abbreviate length, speed, and acceleration units

5 Abbreviate temperature, mass, and volume units

6 Abbreviate force, energy, and electricity units


Eighth grade science

A. Science practices and tools

1 Identify steps of the scientific method

2 Identify laboratory tools


B. Designing experiments

1 Identify control and experimental groups

2 Identify independent and dependent variables

3 Identify the experimental question

4 Identify questions that can be investigated with a set of materials

5 Understand an experimental protocol about plant growth

6 Understand an experimental protocol about diffusion

7 Understand an experimental protocol about evaporation


C. Engineering practices

1 Identify parts of the engineering-design process

2 Evaluate tests of engineering-design solutions

3 Use data from tests to compare engineering-design solutions

4 Explore the engineering-design process: going to the Moon!


D. Density

1 Calculate density, mass, and volume


E. Atoms and molecules

1 What are atoms and chemical elements?

2 How are substances represented by chemical formulas and models?

3 Identify chemical formulas for ball-and-stick models

4 Describe the atomic composition of molecules

5 Classify elementary substances and compounds using chemical formulas

6 Classify elementary substances and compounds using models


F. Chemical reactions

1 Identify reactants and products

2 Count atoms and molecules in chemical reactions

3 Calculate amounts of reactants or products in chemical reactions

4 Describe energy changes in chemical reactions

5 Compare physical and chemical changes

6 Explore chemical structure and properties: soapmaking

7 Explore chemical structure and properties: food flavors


G. Velocity, acceleration, and forces

1 Calculate velocity from time and distance

2 Calculate distance from velocity and time

3 Calculate time from velocity and distance

4 Calculate velocity, distance, and time I

5 Calculate velocity, distance, and time II

6 Identify whether objects are accelerating

7 How does mass affect force and acceleration?

8 Predict forces using Newton's third law

9 Balanced and unbalanced forces


H. Kinetic and potential energy

1 Identify changes in gravitational potential energy

2 Use tables and graphs to identify patterns about kinetic energy

3 Explore energy transformations: roller coaster ride

4 Explore energy transformations: bike ride 


I. Thermal energy

1 Predict heat flow and temperature changes

2 Compare thermal energy transfers


J. Particle motion and energy

1 How does particle motion affect temperature?

2 Particle motion and changes of state

3 How does particle motion affect gas pressure?

4 Identify how particle motion affects temperature and pressure


K. Waves

1 Compare amplitudes, wavelengths, and frequencies of waves

2 Compare energy of waves


L. Solutions

1 Compare concentrations of solutions

2 Diffusion across membranes


M. Classification and scientific names

1 Identify common and scientific names

2 Origins of scientific names

3 Use scientific names to classify organisms


N. Biochemistry

1 Structure and function: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids

2 Understanding the chemistry of cellular respiration


O. Cells

1 Understanding cells

2 Identify functions of plant cell parts

3 Identify functions of animal cell parts

4 Plant cell diagrams: label parts

5 Animal cell diagrams: label parts

6 Compare cells and cell parts


P. Anatomy and physiology

1 Organization in the human body: the heart and the circulatory system

2 Science literacy: how does the nervous system produce phantom pain?


Q. Genes to traits

1 Inherited and acquired traits: use evidence to support a statement

2 Genetics vocabulary: genotype and phenotype

3 Genetics vocabulary: dominant and recessive

4 Genetic variation in sexual reproduction

5 Complete and interpret Punnett squares

6 Use Punnett squares to calculate ratios of offspring types

7 Use Punnett squares to calculate probabilities of offspring types

8 Genes, proteins, and traits: understanding the genetic code

9 Describe the effects of gene mutations on organisms

10 How do genes and the environment affect plant growth?


R. Adaptations and natural selection

1 How can animal behaviors affect reproductive success? Identify evidence to support a claim

2 Introduction to natural selection

3 Calculate the percentages of traits in a population

4 Calculate the averages of traits in a population

5 Construct explanations of natural selection


S. Fossils

1 Compare ages of fossils in a rock sequence 


T. Plant reproduction

1 Angiosperm and conifer life cycles

2 Moss and fern life cycles


U. Photosynthesis

1 How do plants use and change energy?

2 Identify the photosynthetic organism


V. Ecosystems

1 Describe populations, communities, and ecosystems

2 Identify ecosystems

3 Describe ecosystems


W. Ecological interactions

1 How does matter move in food chains?

2 Interpret food webs I

3 Interpret food webs II

4 Use food chains to predict changes in populations

5 Classify symbiotic relationships

6 Investigate primary succession on a volcanic island


X. Conservation

1 Coral reef biodiversity and human uses: explore a problem

2 Coral reef biodiversity and human uses: evaluate solutions


Y. Natural resources and human impacts

1 Evaluate claims about natural resource use: groundwater

2 Evaluate claims about natural resource use: fossil fuels


Z. Rocks and minerals

1 Identify rocks and minerals

2 Label parts of rock cycle diagrams

3 Select parts of rock cycle diagrams


AA. Plate tectonics

1 Label Earth layers

2 Label Earth features at tectonic plate boundaries

3 Describe tectonic plate boundaries around the world


BB. Topographic maps

1 Select parts of a topographic map


CC. Water cycle

1 Label parts of water cycle diagrams

2 Select parts of water cycle diagrams


DD. Weather and climate

1 Use data to describe climates

2 Explore air masses

3 Identify and compare air masses

4 How do air masses form?


EE. Climate change

1 The greenhouse effect


FF. Natural hazards

1 Analyze natural hazard maps


GG. Astronomy

1 Analyze models of the Earth-Sun-Moon system

2 Identify phases of the Moon

3 What causes the seasons on Earth?

4 Analyze data to compare properties of planets


HH. Units and measurement

1 Choose customary units of distance, mass, and volume

2 Choose metric units of distance, mass, and volume

3 Estimate temperatures

4 Abbreviate length, speed, and acceleration units

5 Abbreviate temperature, mass, and volume units

6 Abbreviate force, energy, and electricity units


High School Science

Physical Science Semester 1 and 2

State Course Code: 03159

Subject:  Science

Grade: 7-12 

Credits: 1 (HS) 

Level: Standard Terms: Summer, Fall, Spring

Prerequisites: Middle school science

Course Description:

Physical Science is a full-year course that investigates the fundamentals of Physics, Chemistry, Astronomy, and Earth Science. Math skills will be called upon as force, motion, and energy are investigated. The properties of matter, atomic structure, and chemical reactions allow the student to acquire an understanding of the world around them at a microscopic level. Electricity, magnetism, and waves will be discussed as the student learns how these are formed and the features that characterize them. The class also incorporates topics concerning the physical processes on earth, and the motions, characteristics, and forces in space. 

Course Objectives:

By the end of this course, the successful student will be able to: 

1. Explain the relationship between the structure and properties of matter 

2. Explain that matter is made out of atoms and that atoms are composed of even smaller particles 

3. Use the periodic table to understand the characteristics of an atom or element 

4. Analyze energy and the conservation of energy 

5. Use Ohm’s law to find resistance and current in an electrical system 

6. Use the principles of motion and force to solve real-world problems 

7. Evaluate simple systems that incorporate the principles of force and motion 

8. Explain that acceleration is the rate that the velocity of an object is changing 

9. Describe electricity and explain how it flows and what it is made of 10. Correlate force, motion, and energy with processes around us


Biology Semester 1 and 2

State Course Code: 03051

Subject:  Science

Grade: 7-12 

Credits: 1 (HS) 

Level: Standard 

Terms: Summer, Fall, Spring

Prerequisites: Middle school science

Completion Time: Competency-based or about 90 instructional hours per semester; two semesters. 

Descriptions:

Biology courses are designed to provide information regarding the fundamental concepts of life and life processes. These courses include (but are not restricted to) such topics as cell structure and function, general plant and animal physiology, genetics, and taxonomy. This course is an introduction to general biology and to the processes of scientific inquiry and thinking. It will include the fundamental principles of living organisms including physical and chemical properties of life, cellular organization and function, the transfer of energy through metabolic systems, cellular reproduction, the classification of living things, the six kingdoms of life will be examined. The main focus is to present biological information in an understandable and straightforward way that will capture the students’ interest dealing with up to date principles and concepts. This course is a yearlong course. Students registering for this course in the fall semester will automatically be registered into the second half of the course.  

Course Objectives:

After completing the course, students will be able to:

1. Identify two groups of prokaryotes and describe the evolution of eukaryotes.

2. Identify the first multicellular organisms to live on land.

3. Name the first animals to live on land and the first vertebrates to leave the ocean.

4. Define the term mass extinction.

5. Identify the characteristics used to classify organisms in each of the domains and kingdoms.

6. Identify the levels of cellular organization that occur in plants and animals (tissues, organs, and organ systems).

7. Recognize the characteristics of the three domains and identify organisms based on assigned names (taxonomy).

8. Describe how phylogenetic reconstruction is used to identify the evolutionary patterns that unite different organisms.

9. Explain why outward appearance alone does not provide enough information to assign an organism to a particular species.

10. Explain the purpose of applying a genus name and a species name to an organism.

11. Give reasons why using common names alone for organisms is often very unsatisfactory.

12. Compare and contrast the concepts of evolutionary systematics, phenetics, and cladistics with respect to their methods of grouping organisms.

13. Comprehend that a monophyletic lineage evolves independently with organisms that share a common ancestry.

14. Explain the construction of a cladogram and the information it represents.

15. Interpret a simple cladogram to define derived trait and out-group.

16. Arrange in proper order: kingdom, phylum (or division), class, order, family, genus, and species.

17. Name and define the tissues and organ systems that extend throughout the plant body.

18. Discuss and identify parts of the plant root and root tip, and distinguish the taproot system and fibrous root system.


Chemistry Semester 1 and 2

State Course Code: 03101

Subject:  Science

Grade: 8-12 

Credits: 1 (HS) 

Level: Standard Terms: Summer, Fall, Spring

Prerequisites: Completion of Biology

Completion Time: Competency-based or about 90 instructional hours per semester; two semesters. 

Descriptions:

This course adheres closely to standards for the teaching of chemistry. It emphasizes the mathematical, theoretical and experimental basis of modern chemistry. Emphasis is placed on the use of theoretical and mathematical concepts to explain and predict chemical behavior. An overview of the significant learning objectives that are presented in this course include Measurement, Atomic Structure, Chemical Bonding, Conservation of Matter, Stoichiometry, Gases, Acids and Bases, Solutions, Chemical Thermodynamics, Reaction Rates, Chemical Equilibrium, Organic Nomenclature, Biochemistry, and Nuclear Chemistry. Materials Cost: $273.99 - KCDL Custom Chemistry Kit (Required). This course is a yearlong course. Students registering for this course in the fall semester will automatically be registered into the second half of the course. 

Course Objectives:

After completing the course, students will be able to:

1. Describe and demonstrate the nature of science

2. Demonstrate appropriate skills for laboratory and field investigations including measurement skills

3. Plan and implement investigative procedures

4. Analyze the relationship between science and society

5. Describe the history of chemistry and the development of current and modern atomic theory

6. Distinguish between different types of matter

7. Explain the basic organization of the periodic table

8. Use the periodic table to explain properties that show periodicity

9. Describe the general concepts of chemical bonding including ionic and covalent bonds

10. Demonstrate an understanding of nomenclature of simple compounds

11. Calculate the percent composition of compounds

12. Summarize the basic concepts of organic chemistry

13. Describe the role of organic compounds in biological systems

14. Describe and illustrate the basic types of chemical reactions

15. Describe precipitation reactions, oxidation-reduction reactions, and acid-base reactions

16. Demonstrate how to balance simple chemical equations

17. Perform stoichiometry calculations using the mole

18. Describe the kinetic molecular theory

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