Monday, January 11, 2021

Middle/H.S. English

Middle School 

Sixth grade language arts

Areas of Focus Include: Reading strategies, Writing strategies, Vocabulary, and Grammar and mechanics 

Reading strategies

A. Main idea

1 Determine the main idea of a passage


B. Theme

1 Match the quotations with their themes

2 Determine the themes of short stories


C. Author's purpose and tone

1 Which sentence is more formal?

2 Compare passages for tone

3 Identify author's purpose


D. Text structure

1 Compare and contrast in informational texts

2 Match causes and effects in informational texts

3 Match problems with their solutions

4 Identify text structures 


E. Literary devices

1 Identify sensory details

2 Identify the narrative point of view

3 Interpret the meaning of an allusion from its source

4 Interpret figures of speech

5 Classify figures of speech

6 Analyze the effects of figures of speech on meaning and tone


F. Analyzing literature

1 Analyze short stories

2 Vocabulary review: Analyze short stories

3 Label the rhyme scheme 


G. Analyzing informational texts

1 Read and understand informational passages

2 Vocabulary review: Read and understand informational passages

3 Trace an argument

4 Vocabulary review: Trace an argument


H. Comparing texts

1 Compare information from two texts

2 Compare two texts with different genres


I. Visual elements

1 Compare illustrations of literary and historical subjects

2 Read graphic organizers


Writing strategies

J. Organizing writing

1 Order topics from broadest to narrowest

2 Organize information by main idea

3 Transitions with conjunctive adverbs


K. Developing and supporting arguments

1 Distinguish facts from opinions

2 Choose evidence to support a claim

3 Identify supporting details in informational texts

4 Identify supporting details in literary texts

5 Identify counterclaims

6 Classify logical fallacies 


L. Creative techniques

1 Use personification

2 Create varied sentences based on models


M. Editing and revising

1 Use the correct frequently confused word

2 Correct errors with frequently confused words

3 Correct errors with signs

4 Correct errors in everyday use

5 Suggest appropriate revisions 


N. Research skills

1 Recognize the parts of a Works Cited entry (MLA 8th edition)

2 Use in-text citations (MLA 8th edition)

New! Identify and correct plagiarism


Vocabulary

O. Prefixes and suffixes

1 Words with pre-

2 Words with re-

3 Words with sub-

4 Words with mis-

5 Words with un-, dis-, in-, im-, and non-

6 Words with -ful

7 Words with -less

8 Words with -able and -ible


P. Greek and Latin roots

1 Use Greek and Latin roots as clues to the meanings of words

2 Use the meanings of words as clues to the meanings of Greek and Latin roots

3 Use words as clues to the meanings of Greek and Latin roots

4 Determine the meanings of Greek and Latin roots

5 Determine the meanings of words with Greek and Latin roots 


Q. Synonyms and antonyms

1 Choose the synonym

2 Find synonyms in context

3 Choose the antonym

4 Find antonyms in context


R. Homophones

1 Use the correct homophone

2 Which definition matches the sentence?

3 Which sentence matches the definition?


S. Idioms and adages

1 Determine the meaning of idioms from context: set 1

2 Identify the meaning of idioms and adages: set 1

3 Determine the meaning of idioms from context: set 2

4 Identify the meaning of idioms and adages: set 2


T. Shades of meaning

1 Describe the difference between related words

2 Positive and negative connotation 


U. Analogies

1 Analogies

2 Analogies: challenge


V. Context clues

1 Find words using context

2 Determine the meaning of words using synonyms in context

3 Determine the meaning of words using antonyms in context

4 Use context to identify the meaning of a word

5 Determine the meaning of domain-specific words with pictures


W. Reference skills

1 Alphabetical order

2 Use guide words

3 Use dictionary entries

4 Use dictionary definitions

5 Use thesaurus entries


Grammar and mechanics

X. Sentences, fragments, and run-ons

1 Is the sentence declarative, interrogative, imperative, or exclamatory?

2 Identify the complete subject or complete predicate of a sentence

3 Identify the simple subject or simple predicate of a sentence

4 Identify the compound subject or compound predicate of a sentence

5 Is it a complete sentence or a fragment?

6 Is it a complete sentence or a run-on?

7 Is it a complete sentence, a fragment, or a run-on?

8 Identify dependent and independent clauses

9 Is the sentence simple, compound, or complex?


Y. Nouns

1 Identify common and proper nouns

2 Form plurals of nouns ending in f, fe, o, and y

3 Form and use plurals of nouns ending in f, fe, o, and y

4 Form plurals: review

5 Form and use plurals: review

6 Identify plurals, singular possessives, and plural possessives

7 Form the singular or plural possessive

8 Identify and correct errors with plural and possessive nouns


Z. Pronouns and antecedents

1 Identify pronouns and their antecedents

2 Use the pronoun that agrees with the antecedent

3 Identify vague pronoun references

4 Identify all of the possible antecedents

5 Correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person


AA. Pronoun types

1 Choose between subject and object pronouns

2 Compound subjects and objects with "I" and "me"

3 Compound subjects and objects with pronouns

4 Use possessive pronouns

5 Choose between personal and reflexive pronouns

6 Use reflexive pronouns

7 Is the pronoun reflexive or intensive?

8 Identify relative pronouns

9 Use relative pronouns: who and whom

10 Use relative pronouns: who, whom, whose, which, and that 


BB. Verb types

1 Identify main verbs and helping verbs

2 Identify transitive and intransitive verbs

3 Identify linking verbs, predicate adjectives, and predicate nouns

4 What does the modal verb show?

5 Use the correct modal verb


CC. Subject-verb agreement

1 Use the correct subject or verb

2 Use the correct verb – with compound subjects


DD. Verb tense

1 Irregular past tense: review

2 Simple past, present, and future tense: review

3 Correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense

4 Use the progressive verb tenses

5 Form the progressive verb tenses

6 Choose between the past tense and past participle

7 Use the perfect verb tenses

8 Form the perfect verb tenses


EE. Adjectives and adverbs

1 Identify adjectives

2 Order adjectives

3 Identify adverbs

4 Use relative adverbs

5 Choose between adjectives and adverbs

6 Is the word an adjective or adverb?

7 Form and use comparative and superlative adjectives

8 Good, better, best, bad, worse, and worst

9 Form and use comparative and superlative adverbs

10 Well, better, best, badly, worse, and worst 


FF. Prepositions

1 Identify prepositions

2 Identify prepositions and their objects

3 Identify prepositional phrases

4 Prepositions: review


GG. Direct and indirect objects

1 Is it a direct object or an indirect object?


HH. Conjunctions

1 Use coordinating conjunctions

2 Identify coordinating conjunctions

3 Identify subordinating conjunctions

4 Use the correct pair of correlative conjunctions

5 Fill in the missing correlative conjunction


I. Contractions

1 Pronoun-verb contractions

2 Contractions with "not"


JJ. Punctuation

1 Commas with series, dates, and places

2 Commas with compound and complex sentences

3 Commas with direct addresses, introductory words, interjections, and interrupters

4 Commas with coordinate adjectives

5 Commas: review

6 What does the punctuation suggest?

7 Commas with nonrestrictive elements

8 Use dashes


KK. Capitalization

1 Correct capitalization errors

2 Capitalizing titles


LL. Formatting

1 Formatting titles

2 Formatting and capitalizing titles: review

3 Formatting street addresses

4 Formatting quotations and dialogue


Seventh grade language arts

Areas of Focus Include: Reading strategies, Writing strategies, Vocabulary, Grammar and mechanics

Reading strategies

A. Main idea

1 Determine the main idea of a passage


B. Theme

1 Match the quotations with their themes

2 Determine the themes of short stories


C. Author's purpose and tone

1 Identify author's purpose

2 Which sentence is more formal?

3 Compare passages for tone


D. Text structure

1 Compare and contrast in informational texts

2 Match causes and effects in informational texts

3 Match problems with their solutions

4 Identify text structures 


E. Literary devices

1 Identify sensory details

2 Identify the narrative point of view

3 Interpret the meaning of an allusion from its source

4 Recall the source of an allusion

5 Interpret figures of speech

6 Classify figures of speech

7 Analyze the effects of figures of speech on meaning and tone


F. Analyzing literature

1 Analyze short stories

2 Vocabulary review: Analyze short stories

3 Label the rhyme scheme 


G. Analyzing informational texts

1 Read and understand informational passages

2 Vocabulary review: Read and understand informational passages

3 Trace an argument

4 Vocabulary review: Trace an argument


H. Comparing texts

1 Compare information from two texts

2 Compare two texts with different genres

I. Visual elements

1 Compare illustrations of literary and historical subjects

2 Read graphic organizers


Writing strategies

J. Organizing writing

1 Order topics from broadest to narrowest

2 Organize information by main idea

3 Transitions with conjunctive adverbs


K. Developing and supporting arguments

1 Identify thesis statements

2 Distinguish facts from opinions

3 Choose evidence to support a claim

4 Identify supporting details in informational texts

5 Identify supporting details in literary texts

6 Identify counterclaims

7 Classify logical fallacies 


L. Persuasive strategies

1 Identify appeals to ethos, pathos, and logos in advertisements


M. Creative techniques

1 Use personification

2 Create varied sentences based on models 


N. Editing and revising

1 Use parallel structure

2 Remove redundant words or phrases

3 Use the correct frequently confused word

4 Correct errors with frequently confused words

5 Correct errors with signs

6 Correct errors in everyday use

7 Suggest appropriate revisions

O. Research skills

1 Recognize the parts of a Works Cited entry (MLA 8th edition)

2 Use in-text citations (MLA 8th edition)

3 Identify plagiarism


Vocabulary

P. Prefixes and suffixes

1 Words with pre-

2 Words with re-

3 Words with sub-

4 Words with mis-

5 Words with un-, dis-, in-, im-, and non-

6 Words with -ful

7 Words with -less

8 Words with -able and -ible


Q. Greek and Latin roots

1 Use Greek and Latin roots as clues to the meanings of words

2 Use words as clues to the meanings of Greek and Latin roots

3 Determine the meanings of Greek and Latin roots

4 Determine the meanings of words with Greek and Latin roots 


R. Synonyms and antonyms

1 Choose the synonym

2 Choose the antonym


S. Homophones

1 Use the correct homophone

2 Which definition matches the sentence?

3 Which sentence matches the definition?


T. Shades of meaning

1 Describe the difference between related words

2 Positive and negative connotation


U. Analogies

1 Analogies

2 Analogies: challenge 


V. Context clues

1 Find words using context

2 Determine the meaning of words using synonyms in context

3 Determine the meaning of words using antonyms in context

4 Use context to identify the meaning of a word


W. Domain-specific vocabulary

1 Determine the meaning of domain-specific words with pictures

X. Reference skills

1 Alphabetical order

2 Use guide words

3 Use dictionary entries

4 Use dictionary definitions

5 Use thesaurus entries


Grammar and mechanics

Y. Sentences, fragments, and run-ons

1 Is the sentence declarative, interrogative, imperative, or exclamatory?

2 Identify the complete subject or complete predicate of a sentence

3 Identify the simple subject or simple predicate of a sentence

4 Identify the compound subject or compound predicate of a sentence

5 Is it a complete sentence or a fragment?

6 Is it a complete sentence or a run-on?

7 Is it a complete sentence, a fragment, or a run-on?


Z. Phrases and clauses

1 Is it a phrase or a clause?

2 Identify appositives and appositive phrases

3 Identify dependent and independent clauses

4 Is the sentence simple, compound, complex, or compound-complex?

5 Combine sentences using relative clauses


AA. Nouns

1 Form and use plurals: review

2 Form and use plurals of compound nouns

3 Identify plurals, singular possessives, and plural possessives

4 Form the singular or plural possessive

5 Identify and correct errors with plural and possessive nouns


BB. Pronouns and antecedents

1 Identify pronouns and their antecedents

2 Use the pronoun that agrees with the antecedent

3 Identify vague pronoun references

4 Identify all of the possible antecedents

5 Correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person 


CC. Pronoun types

1 Choose between subject and object pronouns

2 Compound subjects and objects with "I" and "me"

3 Compound subjects and objects with pronouns

4 Choose between personal and reflexive pronouns

5 Use reflexive pronouns

6 Is the pronoun reflexive or intensive?

7 Use relative pronouns: who and whom

8 Use relative pronouns: who, whom, whose, which, and that


DD. Verb types

1 Identify transitive and intransitive verbs

2 Identify linking verbs, predicate adjectives, and predicate nouns


EE. Subject-verb agreement

1 Correct errors with subject-verb agreement

2 Correct errors with indefinite pronoun-verb agreement

3 Use the correct verb – with compound subjects


FF. Verb tense

1 Irregular past tense: review

2 Simple past, present, and future tense: review

3 Identify and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense

4 Form the progressive verb tenses

5 Form the perfect verb tenses

New! Identify gerunds and their functions

New! Identify infinitives and infinitive phrases


GG. Adjectives and adverbs

1 Identify adjectives

2 Order adjectives

3 Identify adverbs

4 Choose between adjectives and adverbs

5 Is the word an adjective or adverb?

6 Form and use comparative and superlative adjectives

7 Good, better, best, bad, worse, and worst

8 Form and use comparative and superlative adverbs

9 Well, better, best, badly, worse, and worst


HH. Prepositions

1 Identify prepositional phrases 

II. Direct and indirect objects

1 Is it a direct object or an indirect object?


JJ. Conjunctions

1 Use the correct pair of correlative conjunctions


KK. Misplaced modifiers

1 Misplaced modifiers with pictures

2 Select the misplaced or dangling modifier

3 Are the modifiers used correctly?


LL. Restrictive and nonrestrictive elements

1 What does the punctuation suggest?

2 Commas with nonrestrictive elements


MM. Commas

1 Commas with series, dates, and places

2 Commas with compound and complex sentences

3 Commas with direct addresses, introductory words, interjections, and interrupters

4 Commas with coordinate adjectives

5 Commas: review


NN. Semicolons, colons, and commas

1 Use semicolons and commas to separate clauses

2 Use semicolons, colons, and commas with lists


OO. Dashes, hyphens, and ellipses

1 Use dashes

2 Use hyphens in compound adjectives

3 Decide whether ellipses are used appropriately


PP. Capitalization

1 Correct capitalization errors

2 Capitalizing titles


QQ. Formatting

1 Formatting titles

2 Formatting and capitalizing titles: review

3 Formatting street addresses

4 Formatting quotations and dialogue


Eighth grade language arts

Areas of Focus Include:Reading strategies, Writing strategies, Vocabulary, and Grammar and mechanics

Reading strategies

A. Main idea

1 Determine the main idea of a passage


B. Theme

1 Match the quotations with their themes

2 Determine the themes of short stories


C. Author's purpose and tone

1 Identify author's purpose

2 Which sentence is more formal?

3 Compare passages for tone


D. Text structure

1 Compare and contrast in informational texts

2 Match causes and effects in informational texts

3 Match problems with their solutions

4 Identify text structures 


E. Literary devices

1 Identify sensory details

2 Identify the narrative point of view

3 Interpret the meaning of an allusion from its source

4 Recall the source of an allusion

5 Interpret figures of speech

6 Classify figures of speech

7 Analyze the effects of figures of speech on meaning and tone


F. Analyzing literature

1 Analyze short stories

2 Vocabulary review: Analyze short stories

3 Label the rhyme scheme 


G. Analyzing informational texts

1 Read and understand informational passages

2 Vocabulary review: Read and understand informational passages

3 Trace an argument

4 Vocabulary review: Trace an argument


H. Comparing texts

1 Compare information from two texts

2 Compare two texts with different genres

I. Visual elements

1 Compare illustrations of literary and historical subjects

2 Read graphic organizers


Writing strategies

J. Organizing writing

1 Order topics from broadest to narrowest

2 Organize information by main idea

3 Transitions with conjunctive adverbs


K. Developing and supporting arguments

1 Identify thesis statements

2 Distinguish facts from opinions

3 Choose evidence to support a claim

4 Identify supporting details in informational texts

5 Identify supporting details in literary texts

6 Identify counterclaims

7 Classify logical fallacies 


L. Persuasive strategies

1 Identify appeals to ethos, pathos, and logos in advertisements


M. Creative techniques

1 Use personification

2 Create varied sentences based on models


N. Active and passive voice

1 Identify active and passive voice

2 Rewrite the sentence in active voice 


O. Editing and revising

1 Use parallel structure

2 Remove redundant words or phrases

3 Use the correct frequently confused word

4 Correct errors with frequently confused words

5 Correct errors with signs

6 Correct errors in everyday use

7 Suggest appropriate revisions


P. Research skills

1 Recognize the parts of a Works Cited entry (MLA 8th edition)

2 Use in-text citations (MLA 8th edition)

3 Identify plagiarism


Vocabulary

Q. Prefixes and suffixes

1 Words with pre-

2 Words with re-

3 Words with sub-

4 Words with mis-

5 Words with un-, dis-, in-, im-, and non-

6 Words with -ful

7 Words with -less

8 Words with -able and -ible


R. Greek and Latin roots

1 Use Greek and Latin roots as clues to the meanings of words

2 Use words as clues to the meanings of Greek and Latin roots

3 Determine the meanings of Greek and Latin roots

4 Determine the meanings of words with Greek and Latin roots 


S. Synonyms and antonyms

1 Choose the synonym

2 Choose the antonym


T. Word choice and usage

1 Describe the difference between related words

2 Positive and negative connotation


U. Homophones

1 Use the correct homophone

2 Which definition matches the sentence?

3 Which sentence matches the definition?


V. Analogies

1 Analogies

2 Analogies: challenge 


W. Context clues

1 Find words using context

2 Determine the meaning of words using synonyms in context

3 Determine the meaning of words using antonyms in context

4 Use context to identify the meaning of a word


X. Domain-specific vocabulary

1 Determine the meaning of domain-specific words with pictures


Y. Reference skills

1 Alphabetical order

2 Use guide words

3 Use dictionary entries

4 Use dictionary definitions

5 Use thesaurus entries


Grammar and mechanics

Z. Sentences, fragments, and run-ons

1 Is the sentence declarative, interrogative, imperative, or exclamatory?

2 Identify the complete subject or complete predicate of a sentence

3 Identify the simple subject or simple predicate of a sentence

4 Identify the compound subject or compound predicate of a sentence

5 Is it a complete sentence or a fragment?

6 Is it a complete sentence or a run-on?

7 Is it a complete sentence, a fragment, or a run-on?


AA. Phrases and clauses

1 Is it a phrase or a clause?

2 Identify appositives and appositive phrases

3 Identify dependent and independent clauses

4 Is the sentence simple, compound, complex, or compound-complex?

5 Combine sentences using relative clauses


BB. Nouns

1 Form and use plurals: review

2 Form and use plurals of compound nouns

3 Identify plurals, singular possessives, and plural possessives

4 Form the singular or plural possessive

5 Identify and correct errors with plural and possessive nouns

6 Identify and correct errors with compound and joint possession


CC. Pronouns and antecedents

1 Identify pronouns and their antecedents

2 Use the pronoun that agrees with the antecedent

3 Correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person

4 Identify vague pronoun references

5 Identify all of the possible antecedents 


DD. Pronoun types

1 Choose between subject and object pronouns

2 Compound subjects and objects with "I" and "me"

3 Compound subjects and objects with pronouns

4 Choose between personal and reflexive pronouns

5 Use reflexive pronouns

6 Is the pronoun reflexive or intensive?

7 Use relative pronouns: who and whom

8 Use relative pronouns: who, whom, whose, which, and that


EE. Verb types

1 Identify transitive and intransitive verbs

2 Identify linking verbs, predicate adjectives, and predicate nouns


FF. Subject-verb agreement

1 Correct errors with subject-verb agreement

2 Correct errors with indefinite pronoun-verb agreement

3 Use the correct verb – with compound subjects


GG. Verb tense

1 Irregular past tense: review

2 Simple past, present, and future tense: review

3 Identify and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense

4 Form the progressive verb tenses

5 Form the perfect verb tenses

6 Identify participles and what they modify

7 Identify gerunds and their functions

8 Identify infinitives and infinitive phrases


HH. Adjectives and adverbs

1 Identify adjectives

2 Order adjectives

3 Identify adverbs

4 Choose between adjectives and adverbs

5 Is the word an adjective or adverb?

6 Form and use comparative and superlative adjectives

7 Good, better, best, bad, worse, and worst

8 Form and use comparative and superlative adverbs

9 Well, better, best, badly, worse, and worst 


II. Prepositions

1 Identify prepositional phrases


JJ. Direct and indirect objects

1 Is it a direct object or an indirect object?


KK. Conjunctions

1 Use the correct pair of correlative conjunctions


LL. Misplaced modifiers

1 Misplaced modifiers with pictures

2 Select the misplaced or dangling modifier

3 Are the modifiers used correctly?


MM. Restrictive and nonrestrictive elements

1 What does the punctuation suggest?

2 Commas with nonrestrictive elements


NN. Commas

1 Commas with series, dates, and places

2 Commas with compound and complex sentences

3 Commas with direct addresses, introductory words, interjections, and interrupters

4 Commas with coordinate adjectives

5 Commas: review


OO. Semicolons, colons, and commas

1 Use semicolons and commas to separate clauses

2 Use semicolons, colons, and commas with lists


PP. Dashes, hyphens, and ellipses

1 Use dashes

2 Use hyphens in compound adjectives

3 Decide whether ellipses are used appropriately


QQ. Capitalization

1 Correct capitalization errors

2 Capitalizing titles


RR. Formatting

1 Formatting titles

2 Formatting and capitalizing titles: review

3 Formatting street addresses

4 Formatting quotations and dialogue


High School

Ninth grade language arts

Areas of Focus Include: Reading strategies, Writing strategies, Vocabulary, and Grammar and mechanics 

Reading strategies

A. Main idea

1 Determine the main idea of a passage

B. Audience, purpose, and tone

1 Which text is most formal?

2 Identify audience and purpose

3 Compare passages for subjective and objective tone

4 Compare passages for tone 


C. Literary devices

1 Identify the narrative point of view

2 Interpret the meaning of an allusion from its source

3 Recall the source of an allusion

4 Interpret figures of speech

5 Classify figures of speech: euphemism, hyperbole, oxymoron, paradox

6 Classify figures of speech: review


D. Analyzing literature

1 Match the quotations with their themes

2 Analyze short stories: set 1

3 Analyze short stories: set 2

4 Identify elements of poetry 

E. Analyzing informational texts

1 Analyze the development of informational passages: set 1

2 Analyze the development of informational passages: set 2

3 Trace an argument: set 1

4 Trace an argument: set 2

5 Analyze rhetorical strategies in historical texts: set 1

6 Analyze rhetorical strategies in historical texts: set 2


Writing strategies

F. Organizing writing

1 Order topics from broadest to narrowest

2 Organize information by main idea


G. Topic sentences and thesis statements

1 Choose the topic sentence that best captures the main idea

2 Identify thesis statements

H. Developing and supporting arguments

1 Distinguish facts from opinions

2 Identify stronger and weaker evidence to support a claim

3 Choose the best evidence to support a claim

4 Identify supporting evidence in a text

5 Evaluate counterclaims

6 Choose the analysis that logically connects the evidence to the claim

7 Transition logically between claims, evidence, analysis, and counterclaims

8 Classify logical fallacies 

I. Persuasive strategies

1 Identify appeals to ethos, pathos, and logos in advertisements

2 Use appeals to ethos, pathos, and logos in persuasive writing

J. Creative techniques

1 Use personification


K. Writing clearly and concisely

1 Transitions with conjunctive adverbs

2 Avoid double, illogical, and unclear comparisons

3 Identify sentences with parallel structure

4 Use parallel structure

5 Remove redundant words or phrases


L. Active and passive voice

1 Identify active and passive voice

2 Rewrite the sentence in active voice 


M. Editing and revising

1 Use the correct frequently confused word

2 Identify and correct errors with frequently confused words

3 Identify and correct errors with frequently confused pronouns and contractions

4 Correct errors with commonly misspelled words

5 Correct errors with signs

6 Correct errors in everyday use

7 Suggest appropriate revisions


N. Research skills

1 Understand a Works Cited entry (MLA 7th edition)

2 Recognize the parts of a Works Cited entry (MLA 8th edition)

3 Use in-text citations (MLA 8th edition)

4 Identify plagiarism


Vocabulary

O. Prefixes and suffixes

1 Word pattern analogies

2 Word pattern sentences

3 Words with pre-

4 Words with re-

5 Words with sub-

6 Words with mis-

7 Words with un-, dis-, in-, im-, and non-

8 Words with -ful

9 Words with -less

10 Words with -able and -ible


P. Greek and Latin roots

1 Sort words by shared Greek or Latin roots

2 Use Greek and Latin roots as clues to the meanings of words

3 Use words as clues to the meanings of Greek and Latin roots

4 Determine the meanings of Greek and Latin roots

5 Determine the meanings of words with Greek and Latin roots 


Q. Homophones

1 Use the correct homophone

2 Identify and correct errors with homophones


R. Foreign words and expressions

1 Use etymologies to determine the meanings of words

2 Use context as a clue to the meanings of foreign expressions

3 Use the correct foreign expression


S. Word usage and nuance

1 Choose the word whose connotation and denotation best match the sentence

2 Use words accurately and precisely

3 Replace words using a thesaurus

4 Explore words with new or contested usages 


T. Analogies

1 Analogies

2 Analogies: challenge


U. Context clues

1 Determine the meaning of words using synonyms in context

2 Determine the meaning of words using antonyms in context

3 Use context to identify the meaning of a word


V. Reference skills

1 Use dictionary entries

2 Use dictionary definitions

3 Use dictionary entries to determine correct usage

4 Use thesaurus entries


Grammar and mechanics

W. Sentences, fragments, and run-ons

1 Is the sentence declarative, interrogative, imperative, or exclamatory?

2 Identify sentence fragments

3 Identify run-on sentences

4 Choose punctuation to avoid fragments and run-ons


X. Phrases and clauses

1 Is it a phrase or a clause?

2 Identify prepositional phrases

3 Identify appositives and appositive phrases

4 Identify dependent and independent clauses

5 Is the sentence simple, compound, complex, or compound-complex?

6 Combine sentences using relative clauses


Y. Nouns

1 Form and use plurals: review

2 Form and use plurals of compound nouns


Z. Pronouns

1 Identify and correct errors with subject and object pronouns

2 Subject and object pronouns review

3 Pronouns after "than" and "as"

4 Identify and correct pronoun errors with "who"

5 Use relative pronouns: who and whom

6 Use relative pronouns: who, whom, whose, which, and that

7 Identify vague pronoun references

8 Identify all of the possible antecedents

9 Correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person 


AA. Verb types

1 Identify transitive and intransitive verbs

2 Identify linking verbs, predicate adjectives, and predicate nouns

3 Identify participles and what they modify

4 Identify gerunds and their functions

5 Identify infinitives and infinitive phrases


BB. Subject-verb agreement

1 Identify and correct errors with subject-verb agreement

2 Identify and correct errors with indefinite pronoun-verb agreement

3 Identify and correct verb agreement with compound subjects


CC. Verb tense

1 Form the progressive verb tenses

2 Form the perfect verb tenses

3 Identify and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense


DD. Adjectives and adverbs

1 Choose between adjectives and adverbs

2 Form and use comparative and superlative adjectives

3 Good, better, best, bad, worse, and worst

4 Form and use comparative and superlative adverbs

5 Well, better, best, badly, worse, and worst


EE. Conjunctions

1 Use the correct pair of correlative conjunctions


FF. Misplaced modifiers

1 Misplaced modifiers with pictures

2 Select the misplaced or dangling modifier

3 Are the modifiers used correctly? 


GG. Restrictive and nonrestrictive elements

1 What does the punctuation suggest?

2 Commas with nonrestrictive elements


HH. Commas

1 Commas with direct addresses, introductory words, interjections, interrupters, and antithetical phrases

2 Commas with series, dates, and places

3 Commas with compound and complex sentences

4 Commas with coordinate adjectives

5 Commas: review


II. Semicolons, colons, and commas

1 Use semicolons and commas to separate clauses

2 Use semicolons, colons, and commas with lists

3 Semicolons, colons, and commas review


JJ. Dashes, hyphens, and ellipses

1 Use dashes

2 Use hyphens in compound adjectives

3 Decide whether ellipses are used appropriately


KK. Apostrophes

1 Identify and correct errors with plural and possessive nouns

2 Identify and correct errors with compound and joint possession


LL. Capitalization

1 Correct capitalization errors


MM. Formatting

1 Formatting quotations and dialogue

2 Capitalizing titles

3 Formatting titles

4 Formatting and capitalizing titles: review


Tenth grade language arts

Areas of Focus Include: Reading strategies, Writing strategies, Vocabulary, and Grammar and mechanics

Reading strategies

A. Main idea

1 Determine the main idea of a passage


B. Audience, purpose, and tone

1 Which text is most formal?

2 Compare passages for subjective and objective tone

3 Identify audience and purpose

4 Compare passages for tone 


C. Literary devices

1 Identify the narrative point of view

2 Interpret the meaning of an allusion from its source

3 Recall the source of an allusion

4 Interpret figures of speech

5 Classify figures of speech: euphemism, hyperbole, oxymoron, paradox

6 Classify figures of speech: review


D. Analyzing literature

1 Analyze short stories: set 1

2 Analyze short stories: set 2

3 Identify elements of poetry 


E. Analyzing informational texts

1 Analyze the development of informational passages: set 1

2 Analyze the development of informational passages: set 2

3 Trace an argument: set 1

4 Trace an argument: set 2

5 Analyze rhetorical strategies in historical texts: set 1

6 Analyze rhetorical strategies in historical texts: set 2


Writing strategies

F. Organizing writing

1 Order topics from broadest to narrowest

2 Organize information by main idea


G. Topic sentences and thesis statements

1 Choose the topic sentence that best captures the main idea

2 Identify thesis statements


H. Developing and supporting arguments

1 Distinguish facts from opinions

2 Identify stronger and weaker evidence to support a claim

3 Choose the best evidence to support a claim

4 Identify supporting evidence in a text

5 Evaluate counterclaims

6 Choose the analysis that logically connects the evidence to the claim

7 Transition logically between claims, evidence, analysis, and counterclaims

8 Classify logical fallacies 


I. Persuasive strategies

1 Identify appeals to ethos, pathos, and logos in advertisements

2 Use appeals to ethos, pathos, and logos in persuasive writing


J. Creative techniques

1 Use personification


K. Writing clearly and concisely

1 Transitions with conjunctive adverbs

2 Avoid double, illogical, and unclear comparisons

3 Identify sentences with parallel structure

4 Use parallel structure

5 Remove redundant words or phrases


L. Active and passive voice

1 Identify active and passive voice

2 Rewrite the sentence in active voice 


M. Editing and revising

1 Use the correct frequently confused word

2 Identify and correct errors with frequently confused words

3 Identify and correct errors with frequently confused pronouns and contractions

4 Correct errors with commonly misspelled words

5 Correct errors with signs

6 Correct errors in everyday use

7 Suggest appropriate revisions


N. Research skills

1 Understand a Works Cited entry (MLA 7th edition)

2 Recognize the parts of a Works Cited entry (MLA 8th edition)

3 Use in-text citations (MLA 8th edition)

4 Identify plagiarism


Vocabulary

O. Prefixes and suffixes

1 Word pattern analogies

2 Word pattern sentences

3 Words with pre-

4 Words with re-

5 Words with sub-

6 Words with mis-

7 Words with un-, dis-, in-, im-, and non-

8 Words with -ful

9 Words with -less

10 Words with -able and -ible


P. Greek and Latin roots

1 Sort words by shared Greek or Latin roots

2 Use Greek and Latin roots as clues to the meanings of words

3 Use words as clues to the meanings of Greek and Latin roots

4 Determine the meanings of Greek and Latin roots

5 Determine the meanings of words with Greek and Latin roots 

Q. Homophones

1 Use the correct homophone

2 Identify and correct errors with homophones

R. Foreign words and expressions

1 Use etymologies to determine the meanings of words

2 Use context as a clue to the meanings of foreign expressions

3 Use the correct foreign expression


S. Word usage and nuance

1 Choose the word whose connotation and denotation best match the sentence

2 Use words accurately and precisely

3 Replace words using a thesaurus

4 Explore words with new or contested usages 


T. Analogies

1 Analogies

2 Analogies: challenge

U. Context clues

1 Determine the meaning of words using synonyms in context

2 Determine the meaning of words using antonyms in context

3 Use context to identify the meaning of a word

V. Reference skills

1 Use dictionary entries

2 Use dictionary definitions

3 Use dictionary entries to determine correct usage

4 Use thesaurus entries


Grammar and mechanics

W. Sentences, fragments, and run-ons

1 Is the sentence declarative, interrogative, imperative, or exclamatory?

2 Identify sentence fragments

3 Identify run-on sentences

4 Choose punctuation to avoid fragments and run-ons


X. Phrases and clauses

1 Is it a phrase or a clause?

2 Identify prepositional phrases

3 Identify appositives and appositive phrases

4 Identify dependent and independent clauses

5 Is the sentence simple, compound, complex, or compound-complex?

6 Combine sentences using relative clauses


Y. Nouns

1 Form and use plurals: review

2 Form and use plurals of compound nouns


Z. Pronouns

1 Identify and correct errors with subject and object pronouns

2 Subject and object pronouns review

3 Pronouns after "than" and "as"

4 Identify and correct pronoun errors with "who"

5 Use relative pronouns: who and whom

6 Use relative pronouns: who, whom, whose, which, and that

7 Identify vague pronoun references

8 Identify all of the possible antecedents

9 Correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person 


AA. Verb types

1 Identify transitive and intransitive verbs

2 Identify linking verbs, predicate adjectives, and predicate nouns

3 Identify participles and what they modify

4 Identify gerunds and their functions

5 Identify infinitives and infinitive phrases


BB. Subject-verb agreement

1 Identify and correct errors with subject-verb agreement

2 Identify and correct errors with indefinite pronoun-verb agreement

3 Identify and correct verb agreement with compound subjects

CC. Verb tense

1 Form the progressive verb tenses

2 Form the perfect verb tenses

3 Identify and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense

DD. Adjectives and adverbs

1 Choose between adjectives and adverbs

2 Form and use comparative and superlative adjectives

3 Good, better, best, bad, worse, and worst

4 Form and use comparative and superlative adverbs

5 Well, better, best, badly, worse, and worst


EE. Conjunctions

1 Use the correct pair of correlative conjunctions


FF. Misplaced modifiers

1 Misplaced modifiers with pictures

2 Select the misplaced or dangling modifier

3 Are the modifiers used correctly? 


GG. Restrictive and nonrestrictive elements

1 What does the punctuation suggest?

2 Commas with nonrestrictive elements


HH. Commas

1 Commas with direct addresses, introductory words, interjections, interrupters, and antithetical phrases

2 Commas with series, dates, and places

3 Commas with compound and complex sentences

4 Commas with coordinate adjectives

5 Commas: review


II. Semicolons, colons, and commas

1 Use semicolons and commas to separate clauses

2 Use semicolons, colons, and commas with lists

3 Semicolons, colons, and commas review


JJ. Dashes, hyphens, and ellipses

1 Use dashes

2 Use hyphens in compound adjectives

3 Decide whether ellipses are used appropriately


KK. Apostrophes

1 Identify and correct errors with plural and possessive nouns

2 Identify and correct errors with compound and joint possession


LL. Capitalization

1 Correct capitalization errors


MM. Formatting

1 Formatting quotations and dialogue


Eleventh grade language arts

Areas of Focus Include: Reading strategies, Writing strategies, Vocabulary, and Grammar and mechanics 


Reading strategies

A. Main idea

1 Determine the main idea of a passage


B. Audience, purpose, and tone

1 Which text is most formal?

2 Compare passages for subjective and objective tone

3 Identify audience and purpose

4 Compare passages for tone 


C. Literary devices

1 Identify the narrative point of view

2 Interpret the meaning of an allusion from its source

3 Recall the source of an allusion

4 Interpret the figure of speech

5 Classify the figure of speech: euphemism, hyperbole, oxymoron, paradox

6 Classify the figure of speech: anaphora, antithesis, apostrophe, assonance, chiasmus, understatement

7 Classify the figure of speech: review

8 Analyze the effects of figures of speech on meaning and tone 


D. Analyzing literature

1 Analyze short stories: set 1

2 Analyze short stories: set 2

3 Identify elements of poetry


E. Analyzing informational texts

1 Analyze the development of informational passages: set 1

2 Analyze the development of informational passages: set 2

3 Trace an argument: set 1

4 Trace an argument: set 2

5 Analyze rhetorical strategies in historical texts: set 1

6 Analyze rhetorical strategies in historical texts: set 2


Writing strategies

F. Organizing writing

1 Order topics from broadest to narrowest

2 Organize information by main idea


G. Topic sentences and thesis statements

1 Choose the topic sentence that best captures the main idea

2 Identify thesis statements


H. Developing and supporting arguments

1 Distinguish facts from opinions

2 Identify stronger and weaker evidence to support a claim

3 Choose the best evidence to support a claim

4 Identify supporting evidence in a text

5 Evaluate counterclaims

6 Choose the analysis that logically connects the evidence to the claim

7 Transition logically between claims, evidence, analysis, and counterclaims

8 Classify logical fallacies 


I. Persuasive strategies

1 Identify appeals to ethos, pathos, and logos in advertisements

2 Use appeals to ethos, pathos, and logos in persuasive writing


J. Writing clearly and concisely

1 Transitions with conjunctive adverbs

2 Avoid double, illogical, and unclear comparisons

3 Identify sentences with parallel structure

4 Use parallel structure

5 Remove redundant words or phrases 


K. Editing and revising

1 Use the correct frequently confused word

2 Identify and correct errors with frequently confused words

3 Identify and correct errors with frequently confused pronouns and contractions

4 Correct errors with commonly misspelled words

5 Correct errors with signs

6 Correct errors in everyday use

7 Suggest appropriate revisions


L. Research skills

1 Understand a Works Cited entry (MLA 7th edition)

2 Recognize the parts of a Works Cited entry (MLA 8th edition)

3 Use in-text citations (MLA 8th edition)

4 Identify plagiarism


Vocabulary

M. Prefixes and suffixes

1 Word pattern analogies

2 Word pattern sentences

3 Prefixes

4 Suffixes


N. Greek and Latin roots

1 Sort words by shared Greek or Latin roots

2 Use Greek and Latin roots as clues to the meanings of words

3 Use words as clues to the meanings of Greek and Latin roots

4 Determine the meanings of Greek and Latin roots

5 Determine the meanings of words with Greek and Latin roots


O. Homophones

1 Use the correct homophone

2 Identify and correct errors with homophones 


P. Foreign words and expressions

1 Use etymologies to determine the meanings of words

2 Use context as a clue to the meanings of foreign expressions

3 Use the correct foreign expression


Q. Word usage and nuance

1 Describe the difference between related words

2 Choose the word whose connotation and denotation best match the sentence

3 Use words accurately and precisely

4 Replace words using a thesaurus

5 Use dictionary entries to determine correct usage

6 Explore words with new or contested usages 


R. Analogies

1 Analogies

2 Analogies: challenge


S. Context clues

1 Determine the meaning of words using synonyms in context

2 Determine the meaning of words using antonyms in context

3 Domain-specific vocabulary in context: science and technical subjects


Grammar and mechanics

T. Sentences, fragments, and run-ons

1 Identify sentence fragments

2 Identify run-on sentences

3 Choose punctuation to avoid fragments and run-ons


U. Phrases and clauses

1 Is it a phrase or a clause?

2 Identify prepositional phrases

3 Identify appositives and appositive phrases

4 Identify dependent and independent clauses

5 Is the sentence simple, compound, complex, or compound-complex?

6 Combine sentences using relative clauses


V. Pronouns

1 Identify and correct errors with subject and object pronouns

2 Subject and object pronouns review

3 Pronouns after "than" and "as"

4 Identify and correct pronoun errors with "who"

5 Use relative pronouns: who and whom

6 Use relative pronouns: who, whom, whose, which, and that

7 Identify vague pronoun references

8 Identify all of the possible antecedents

9 Correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person


W. Verb types

1 Identify transitive and intransitive verbs

2 Identify linking verbs, predicate adjectives, and predicate nouns

3 Identify participles and what they modify

4 Identify gerunds and their functions

5 Identify infinitives and infinitive phrases 


X. Subject-verb agreement

1 Identify and correct errors with subject-verb agreement

2 Identify and correct errors with indefinite pronoun-verb agreement

3 Identify and correct verb agreement with compound subjects


Y. Verb tense

1 Form the progressive verb tenses

2 Form the perfect verb tenses

3 Identify and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense


Z. Adjectives and adverbs

1 Choose between adjectives and adverbs

2 Form and use comparative and superlative adjectives

3 Good, better, best, bad, worse, and worst

4 Form and use comparative and superlative adverbs

5 Well, better, best, badly, worse, and worst


AA. Misplaced modifiers

1 Misplaced modifiers with pictures

2 Select the misplaced or dangling modifier

3 Are the modifiers used correctly?


BB. Restrictive and nonrestrictive elements

1 What does the punctuation suggest?

2 Commas with nonrestrictive elements 


CC. Commas

1 Commas with direct addresses, introductory elements, absolute phrases, interjections, interrupters, and antithetical phrases

2 Commas with series, dates, and places

3 Commas with compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences

4 Commas with coordinate adjectives

5 Commas: review


DD. Semicolons, colons, and commas

1 Join sentences with semicolons, colons, and commas

2 Use colons and commas to introduce lists, quotations, and appositives

3 Use semicolons and commas to separate items in a series

4 Semicolons, colons, and commas review


EE. Dashes, hyphens, and ellipses

1 Use dashes

2 Use hyphens in compound adjectives

3 Decide whether ellipses are used appropriately


FF. Apostrophes

1 Identify and correct errors with plural and possessive nouns

2 Identify and correct errors with compound and joint possession


GG. Capitalization

1 Correct capitalization errors


HH. Formatting

1 Formatting quotations and dialogue


Twelfth grade language arts

Areas of Focus Include: Reading strategies, Writing strategies, Vocabulary, and Grammar and mechanics

Reading strategies

A. Main idea

1 Determine the main idea of a passage


B. Audience, purpose, and tone

1 Which text is most formal?

2 Compare passages for subjective and objective tone

3 Identify audience and purpose

4 Compare passages for tone 


C. Literary devices

1 Identify the narrative point of view

2 Interpret the meaning of an allusion from its source

3 Recall the source of an allusion

4 Interpret the figure of speech

5 Classify the figure of speech: euphemism, hyperbole, oxymoron, paradox

6 Classify the figure of speech: anaphora, antithesis, apostrophe, assonance, chiasmus, understatement

7 Classify the figure of speech: review

8 Analyze the effects of figures of speech on meaning and tone 


D. Analyzing literature

1 Analyze short stories: set 1

2 Analyze short stories: set 2

3 Identify elements of poetry


E. Analyzing informational texts

1 Analyze the development of informational passages: set 1

2 Analyze the development of informational passages: set 2

3 Trace an argument: set 1

4 Trace an argument: set 2

5 Analyze rhetorical strategies in historical texts: set 1

6 Analyze rhetorical strategies in historical texts: set 2


Writing strategies

F. Organizing writing

1 Order topics from broadest to narrowest

2 Organize information by main idea


G. Topic sentences and thesis statements

1 Choose the topic sentence that best captures the main idea

2 Identify thesis statements


H. Developing and supporting arguments

1 Distinguish facts from opinions

2 Identify stronger and weaker evidence to support a claim

3 Choose the best evidence to support a claim

4 Identify supporting evidence in a text

5 Evaluate counterclaims

6 Choose the analysis that logically connects the evidence to the claim

7 Transition logically between claims, evidence, analysis, and counterclaims

8 Classify logical fallacies 


I. Persuasive strategies

1 Identify appeals to ethos, pathos, and logos in advertisements

2 Use appeals to ethos, pathos, and logos in persuasive writing


J. Writing clearly and concisely

1 Transitions with conjunctive adverbs

2 Avoid double, illogical, and unclear comparisons

3 Identify sentences with parallel structure

4 Use parallel structure

5 Remove redundant words or phrases 


K. Editing and revising

1 Use the correct frequently confused word

2 Identify and correct errors with frequently confused words

3 Identify and correct errors with frequently confused pronouns and contractions

4 Correct errors with commonly misspelled words

5 Correct errors with signs

6 Correct errors in everyday use

7 Suggest appropriate revisions


L. Research skills

1 Understand a Works Cited entry (MLA 7th edition)

2 Recognize the parts of a Works Cited entry (MLA 8th edition)

3 Use in-text citations (MLA 8th edition)

4 Identify plagiarism


Vocabulary

M. Prefixes and suffixes

1 Prefixes

2 Suffixes

3 Word pattern analogies

4 Word pattern sentences


N. Greek and Latin roots

1 Sort words by shared Greek or Latin roots

2 Use Greek and Latin roots as clues to the meanings of words

3 Use words as clues to the meanings of Greek and Latin roots

4 Determine the meanings of Greek and Latin roots

5 Determine the meanings of words with Greek and Latin roots


O. Homophones

1 Use the correct homophone

2 Identify and correct errors with homophones 


P. Foreign words and expressions

1 Use etymologies to determine the meanings of words

2 Use context as a clue to the meanings of foreign expressions

3 Use the correct foreign expression


Q. Word usage and nuance

1 Describe the difference between related words

2 Choose the word whose connotation and denotation best match the sentence

3 Use words accurately and precisely

4 Replace words using a thesaurus

5 Use dictionary entries to determine correct usage

6 Explore words with new or contested usages 



R. Analogies

1 Analogies

2 Analogies: challenge


S. Context clues

1 Determine the meaning of words using synonyms in context

2 Determine the meaning of words using antonyms in context

3 Domain-specific vocabulary in context: science and technical subjects


Grammar and mechanics

T. Sentences, fragments, and run-ons

1 Identify sentence fragments

2 Identify run-on sentences

3 Choose punctuation to avoid fragments and run-ons


U. Phrases and clauses

1 Is it a phrase or a clause?

2 Identify prepositional phrases

3 Identify appositives and appositive phrases

4 Identify dependent and independent clauses

5 Is the sentence simple, compound, complex, or compound-complex?

6 Combine sentences using relative clauses


V. Pronouns

1 Identify and correct errors with subject and object pronouns

2 Subject and object pronouns review

3 Pronouns after "than" and "as"

4 Identify and correct pronoun errors with "who"

5 Use relative pronouns: who and whom

6 Use relative pronouns: who, whom, whose, which, and that

7 Identify vague pronoun references

8 Identify all of the possible antecedents

9 Correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person


W. Verb types

1 Identify transitive and intransitive verbs

2 Identify linking verbs, predicate adjectives, and predicate nouns

3 Identify participles and what they modify

4 Identify gerunds and their functions

5 Identify infinitives and infinitive phrases 

X. Subject-verb agreement

1 Identify and correct errors with subject-verb agreement

2 Identify and correct errors with indefinite pronoun-verb agreement

3 Identify and correct verb agreement with compound subjects


Y. Verb tense

1 Form the progressive verb tenses

2 Form the perfect verb tenses

3 Identify and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense


Z. Adjectives and adverbs

1 Choose between adjectives and adverbs

2 Form and use comparative and superlative adjectives

3 Good, better, best, bad, worse, and worst

4 Form and use comparative and superlative adverbs

5 Well, better, best, badly, worse, and worst


AA. Misplaced modifiers

1 Misplaced modifiers with pictures

2 Select the misplaced or dangling modifier

3 Are the modifiers used correctly?


BB. Restrictive and nonrestrictive elements

1 What does the punctuation suggest?

2 Commas with nonrestrictive elements 


CC. Commas

1 Commas with direct addresses, introductory elements, absolute phrases, interjections, interrupters, and antithetical phrases

2 Commas with series, dates, and places

3 Commas with compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences

4 Commas with coordinate adjectives

5 Commas: review


DD. Semicolons, colons, and commas

1 Join sentences with semicolons, colons, and commas

2 Use colons and commas to introduce lists, quotations, and appositives

3 Use semicolons and commas to separate items in a series

4 Semicolons, colons, and commas review


EE. Dashes, hyphens, and ellipses

1 Use dashes

2 Use hyphens in compound adjectives

3 Decide whether ellipses are used appropriately


FF. Apostrophes

1 Identify and correct errors with plural and possessive nouns

2 Identify and correct errors with compound and joint possession


GG. Capitalization

1 Correct capitalization errors


HH. Formatting

1 Formatting quotations and dialogue


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