Science – Grades 5-12

Candidates earning the Science (5-12) endorsement must hold a designated science endorsement (Biology, Chemistry, Physics, or Earth and Space Science) or must also earn a designated science endorsement during their candidacy. Certificated teachers who wish to add the Science (5-12) endorsement must hold a designated science endorsement.

The candidate knows and understands a) the four core ideas in the physical, life, earth and space sciences, and engineering design and b) how to guide the learning. Content includes the Science and Engineering Practices and Crosscutting Concepts.

1.0 Disciplinary Core Ideas

1.A Understand the disciplinary core ideas of physical science.
1.A.1 Demonstrate sufficient knowledge of matter and its interactions to be able to guide others in learning the material.
1.A.1.A Understand that the existence of atoms, now supported by evidence from modern instruments, was first postulated as a model that could explain both qualitative and quantitative observations about matter (e.g., Brownian motion, ratios of reactants and products in chemical reactions).
1.A.1.B Understand matter can be understood in terms of the types of atoms present and the interactions both between and within them. The states (i.e., solid, liquid, gas, or plasma), properties (e.g., hardness, conductivity), and reactions (both physical and chemical) of matter can be described and predicted based on the types, interactions, and motions of the atoms within it.
1.A.1.C Understand chemical reactions, which underlie so many observed phenomena in living and nonliving systems alike, conserve the number of atoms of each type but change their arrangement into molecules.
1.A.1.D Understand nuclear reactions involve changes in the types of atomic nuclei present and are key to the energy release from the sun and the balance of isotopes in matter.
1.A.2 Demonstrate sufficient knowledge of motion and stability to be able to guide others in learning the material.
1.A.2.A Understand interactions between any two objects can cause changes in one or both of them.
1.A.2.B Understand the forces between objects is important for describing how their motions change, as well as for predicting stability or instability in systems at any scale.
1.A.2.C Understand all forces between objects arise from a few types of interactions: gravity, electromagnetism, and the strong and weak nuclear interactions.
1.A.3 Demonstrate sufficient knowledge of energy to be able to guide others in learning the material.
1.A.3.A Understand interactions of objects can be explained and predicted using the concept of transfer of energy from one object or system of objects to another.
1.A.3.B Understand the total energy within a defined system changes only by the transfer of energy into or out of the system.
1.A.4 Demonstrate sufficient knowledge of waves and their applications in technology for information transfer to be able to guide others in learning the material.
1.A.4.A Understand waves are a repeating pattern of motion that transfers energy from place to place without overall displacement of matter. Light and sound are wavelike phenomena.
1.A.4.B Understand wave properties and the interactions of electromagnetic radiation with matter, scientists and engineers can design systems for transferring information across long distances, storing information, and investigating nature on many scales—some of them far beyond direct human perception.

1.B Understand the disciplinary core ideas of life science.
1.B.1 From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
1.B.1.A Demonstrate sufficient knowledge that all living organisms are made of cells and be able to guide others in learning the material.
1.B.1.B Understand life is the quality that distinguishes living things—composed of living cells—from nonliving objects or those that have died.
1.B.1.C Understand while a simple definition of life can be difficult to capture, all living things—that is to say all organisms—can be characterized by common aspects of their structure and functioning.
1.B.1.D Understand organisms are complex, organized, and built on a hierarchical structure, with each level providing the foundation for the next, from the chemical foundation of elements and atoms, to the cells and systems of individual organisms, to species and populations living and interacting in complex ecosystems.
1.B.1.E Understand organisms can be made of a single cell or millions of cells working together and include animals, plants, algae, fungi, bacteria, and all other microorganisms.
1.B.1.F Understand organisms respond to stimuli from their environment and actively maintain their internal environment through homeostasis.
1.B.1.G Understand they grow and reproduce, transferring their genetic information to their offspring.
1.B.1.H Understand while individual organisms carry the same genetic information over their lifetime, mutation and the transfer from parent to offspring produce new combinations of genes.
1.B.1.I Understand over generations natural selection can lead to changes in a species overall; hence, species evolve over time.
1.B.1.J Understand to maintain all of these processes and functions, organisms require materials and energy from their environment; nearly all energy that sustains life ultimately comes from the sun.
1.B.2 Demonstrate sufficient knowledge of ecosystems and their interactions, energy, and dynamics to be able to guide others in learning the material.
1.B.2.A Understand ecosystems are complex, interactive systems that include both biological communities (biotic) and physical (abiotic) components of the environment.
1.B.2.B Understand as with individual organisms, a hierarchal structure exists; groups of the same organisms (species) form populations, different populations interact to form communities, communities live within an ecosystem, and all of the ecosystems on Earth make up the biosphere.
1.B.2.C Understand organisms grow, reproduce, and perpetuate their species by obtaining necessary resources through interdependent relationships with other organisms and the physical environment.
1.B.2.D Understand these same interactions can facilitate or restrain growth and enhance or limit the size of populations, maintaining the balance between available resources and those who consume them.
1.B.2.E Understand these interactions can also change both biotic and abiotic characteristics of the environment.
1.B.2.F Understand that like individual organisms, ecosystems are sustained by the continuous flow of energy, originating primarily from the sun, and the recycling of matter and nutrients within the system.
1.B.2.G Understand ecosystems are dynamic, experiencing shifts in population composition and abundance and changes in the physical environment over time, which ultimately affects the stability and resilience of the entire system.
1.B.3 Demonstrate sufficient knowledge of heredity, inheritance, and variation of traits and be able to guide others in learning the material.
1.B.3.A Understand heredity explains why offspring resemble, but are not identical to, their parents and is a unifying biological principle. Heredity refers to specific mechanisms by which characteristics or traits are passed from one generation to the next via genes.
1.B.3.B Understand genes encode the information for making specific proteins, which are responsible for the specific traits of an individual.
1.B.3.C Understand each gene can have several variants, called alleles, which code for different variants of the trait in question.
1.B.3.D Understand genes reside in a cell’s chromosomes, each of which contains many genes.
1.B.3.E Understand every cell of any individual organism contains the identical set of chromosomes.
1.B.3.F Understand when organisms reproduce, genetic information is transferred to their offspring.
1.B.3.G Understand in species that reproduce sexually, each cell contains two variants of each chromosome, one inherited from each parent. Thus sexual reproduction gives rise to a new combination of chromosome pairs with variations between parent and offspring.
1.B.3.H Understand that very rarely, mutations also cause variations, which may be harmful, neutral, or occasionally advantageous for an individual.
1.B.3.I Understand environmental as well as genetic variation and the relative dominance of each of the genes in a pair play an important role in how traits develop within an individual.
1.B.3.J Understand complex relationships between genes and interactions of genes with the environment determine how an organism will develop and function.
1.B.4 Demonstrate sufficient knowledge of biological evolution, unity, and diversity to be able to guide others in learning the material.
1.B.4.A Understand biological evolution explains both the unity and the diversity of species and provides a unifying principle for the history and diversity of life on Earth.
1.B.4.B Understand biological evolution is supported by extensive scientific evidence ranging from the fossil record to genetic relationships among species.
1.B.4.C Understand researchers continue to use new and different techniques, including DNA and protein sequence analyses, to test and further their understanding of evolutionary relationships.
1.B.4.D Understand evolution, which is continuous and ongoing, occurs when natural selection acts on the genetic variation in a population and changes the distribution of traits in that population gradually over multiple generations.
1.B.4.E Understand natural selection can act more rapidly after sudden changes in conditions, which can lead to the extinction of species.
1.B.4.F Understand that through natural selection, traits that provide an individual with an advantage to best meet environmental challenges and reproduce are the ones most likely to be passed on to the next generation.
1.B.4.G Understand that over multiple generations, this process can lead to the emergence of new species.
1.B.4.H Understand evolution thus explains both the similarities of genetic material across all species and the multitude of species existing in diverse conditions on Earth—its biodiversity—which humans depend on for natural resources and other benefits to sustain themselves.

1.C Understand the disciplinary core ideas of earth and space science.
1.C.1 Demonstrate sufficient knowledge of Earth’s place in the universe to be able to guide others in learning the material.
1.C.1.A Understand the planet Earth is a tiny part of a vast universe that has developed over a huge expanse of time.
1.C.1.B Understand the history of the universe, and of the structures and objects within it, can be deciphered using observations of their present condition together with knowledge of physics and chemistry.
1.C.1.C Understand that the patterns of motion of the objects in the solar system can be described and predicted on the basis of observations and an understanding of gravity.
1.C.1.D Understand these patterns can be used to explain many Earth phenomena, such as day and night, seasons, tides, and phases of the moon.
1.C.1.E Understand that observations of other solar system objects and of Earth itself can be used to determine Earth’s age and the history of large-scale changes in its surface.
1.C.2 Demonstrate sufficient knowledge of Earth’s systems to be able to guide others in learning the material.
1.C.2.A Understand Earth’s surface is a complex and dynamic set of interconnected systems—principally the geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere—that interact over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales.
1.C.2.B Understand all of Earth’s processes are the result of energy flowing and matter cycling within and among these systems.
1.C.2.C Understand, for example, the motion of tectonic plates is part of the cycles of convection in Earth’s mantle, driven by outflowing heat and the downward pull of gravity, which result in the formation and changes of many features of Earth’s land and undersea surface.
1.C.2.D Understand weather and climate are shaped by complex interactions involving sunlight, the ocean, the atmosphere, clouds, ice, land, and life forms.
1.C.2.E Understand Earth’s biosphere has changed the makeup of the geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere over geological time; conversely, geological events and conditions have influenced the evolution of life on the planet.
1.C.2.F Understand water is essential to the dynamics of most earth systems, and it plays a significant role in shaping Earth’s landscape.
1.C.3 Demonstrate sufficient knowledge of earth and human activity to be able to guide others in learning the material.
1.C.3.A Understand Earth’s surface processes affect and are affected by human activities.
1.C.3.B Understand humans depend on all of the planet’s systems for a variety of resources, some of which are renewable or replaceable and some of which are not.
1.C.3.C Understand natural hazards and other geological events can significantly alter human populations and activities.
1.C.3.D Understand human activities, in turn, can contribute to the frequency and intensity of some natural hazards. Indeed, humans have become one of the most significant agents of change in Earth’s surface systems.
1.C.3.E Understand, in particular, it has been shown that climate change—which could have large consequences for all of Earth’s surface systems, including the biosphere—is driven not only by natural effects but also by human activities.
1.C.3.F Understand sustaining the biosphere will require detailed knowledge and modeling of the factors that affect climate, coupled with the responsible management of natural resources.

1.D Understand the disciplinary core ideas of engineering, technology, and application of science.
1.D.1 Demonstrate sufficient knowledge of engineering design to be able to guide others in learning the material.
1.D.1.A Understand the design process—engineers’ basic approach to problem solving—involves many different practices.
1.D.1.B Understand they include problem definition, model development and use, investigation, analysis and interpretation of data, application of mathematics and computational thinking, and determination of solutions.
1.D.1.C Understand these engineering practices incorporate specialized knowledge about criteria and constraints, modeling and analysis, and optimization and trade-offs.
1.D.2 Demonstrate sufficient knowledge of links among engineering, technology, science, and society to be able to guide others in learning the material.
1.D.2.A Understand new insights from science often catalyze the emergence of new technologies and their applications, which are developed using engineering design.
1.D.2.B Understand, in turn, new technologies open opportunities for new scientific investigations.
1.D.2.C Understand, together, advances in science, engineering, and technology can have—and indeed have had—profound effects on human society, in such areas as agriculture, transportation, health care, and communication, and on the natural environment.
1.D.2.D Understand each system can change significantly when new technologies are introduced, with both desired effects and unexpected outcomes.
1.E Understand and apply the learning progressions in Appendix E, Disciplinary Core Ideas and Appendix I, Engineering Design in NGSS.

2.0 Science and Engineering Practices
2.A Understand and apply Science and Engineering Practices in NGSS.
2.A.1 Ask questions (for science) and define problems (for engineering).
2.A.2 Develop and use models.
2.A.3 Plan and carry out investigations.
2.A.4 Analyze and interpret data.
2.A.5 Use mathematics and computational thinking.
2.A.6 Construct explanations (for science) and design solutions (for engineering).
2.A.7 Engage in argument from evidence.
2.A.8 Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information.

2.B Have experience with and model the practices by which scientists and engineers develop and refine ideas.

2.C Understand and apply the progressions in Appendix F, Scientific and Engineering Practices in NGSS.

2.D Collaborate with other content-area experts and STEM professionals to solve real-world problems, to promote equitable opportunities for in-depth experiences, and to include different perspectives.

3.0 Crosscutting Concepts
3.A Understand how the Crosscutting Concepts bridge disciplinary boundaries, uniting core ideas throughout the fields of science and engineering.
3.A.1 Patterns.
3.A.2 Cause and effect.
3.A.3 Scale, proportion, and quantities.
3.A.4 Systems and systems models.
3.A.5 Energy and matter; flows, cycles, and conservation.
3.A.6 Structure and function.
3.A.7 Stability and change.

3.B Have experience with and model the application of Crosscutting Concepts by which scientists and engineers develop and refine ideas.

3.C Understand and apply the progressions in Appendix G, Section 2, Crosscutting Concepts Matrix of the NGSS.

4.0 Science-specific Instructional Methodology
4.A Incorporate instructional materials and teaching strategies to create a community of diverse student learners who can construct meaning from scientific experiences and possess a disposition for further inquiry and learning in Appendix D, All Standards, All Students in NGSS.

4.B Anticipate learner ideas in the planning of instruction, identify students’ specific prior knowledge and skills on which instruction can be built, monitor the development of student understanding, interpret student needs, develop responsive actions to meet these needs, and provide multiple opportunities for students to practice their learning.

4.C Integrate the Disciplinary Core Ideas, Crosscutting Concepts, and Science and Engineering Practices to immerse students in the manner in which scientific and engineering ideas are developed and refined.
4.C.1 Implement the Disciplinary Core Ideas of physical, life, earth and space science, and engineering progressions in Appendix E, Disciplinary Core Ideas and Appendix I, Engineering Design in NGSS.
4.C.2 Implement the Science and Engineering Practices in Appendix F in NGSS.
4.C.3 Implement the progressions of the Crosscutting Concepts across the grades in order to help students deepen their understanding of the Disciplinary Core Ideas and develop coherent and scientifically-based view of the world in Appendix G, Section 2, Crosscutting Concepts Matrix in NGSS.

4.D Understand and be able to appropriately respond to potential safety hazards in different learning environments, e.g., laboratory, classroom, or field.
4.D.1 Establish and enforce laboratory safety (including storage and disposal of hazardous waste) in the science laboratory.
4.D.2 Demonstrate responsible use and disposal of live organisms according to Washington State law.

4.E Demonstrate an understanding of the CCSS for Mathematics and align instruction in science with instruction that students receive in mathematics, examples of which are described in Appendix L, Connections to the CCSS for Mathematics in NGSS.

4.F Demonstrate an understanding of the CCSS for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects and align instruction in science with instruction that students receive in English Language Arts, examples of which are described in Appendix M, Connections to the CCSS for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects in NGSS.

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